Next-generation sequencing (NGS or Next-gen Sequencing) refers to a number of high-throughput sequencing technologies that allow researchers to sequence DNA and RNA much more quickly and cheaply than older technologies (i.e. Sanger sequencing). NGS has revolutionized the study of genomics by helping to characterize the genetic markers associated with diseases. The technology has the potential to transform clinical care by driving drug development that can target those makers. Oncology has been at the forefront of this transformation, as NGS has allowed for rapid and detailed testing of individual patient tumors, enabling doctors to tailor therapies based on their patient’s specific risk and sensitivity profiles.